HVOF coating: thermal spray processes

Enhancing Durability and Performance: HVOF Coatings for Wear and Hot Oxidation and Corrosion Resistance

High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) is an advanced thermal spray process that deposits extremely durable coatings on various materials.

It uses a high-speed stream of oxygen and fuel to plasticize and propel powdered coating materials onto surfaces, resulting in exceptionally dense and wear-resistant coatings, ideal for applications requiring protection against wear and hot oxidation.

What is HVOF coating?

The High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) process is an innovative thermal spray technique used to apply robust and high-performance coatings to a wide range of materials.

It leverages the power of combustion to create a high-speed supersonic jet of hot gases, which is used to propel finely powdered coating materials onto a substrate's surface. This unique method results in the formation of coatings with exceptional qualities, including outstanding wear resistance and hot oxidation resistance.

The HVOF process begins with the selection of suitable coating materials, often in powdered form. These materials can be metals or carbides in a metallic matrix (CERMETs), depending on the desired properties of the final coating. The chosen powder is then introduced into a barrel, where it mixes with a stream of oxygen and fuel gases. The precise combination of gases, pressure, and temperature are controlled to create a highly energetic and supersonic flame.

As the mixed gases ignite, they generate an incredibly high-velocity flame that propels the powdered particles onto the substrate with remarkable force. The impact and heat from this process cause the particles to plasticize and bond onto the surface, forming a dense, uniform, and highly adhesive coating. The high velocity of the particles results in a reduced risk of oxidation and porosity, which is critical for achieving exceptional coating quality.

HVOF coatings exhibit exceptional wear resistance, making them ideal for applications where surfaces are subjected to abrasive or erosive forces. Additionally, they offer impressive protection against hot oxidation, which is essential in environments with high-temperature exposure, like in Gas Turbine. The HVOF process is widely used in industries such as aerospace, energy, and manufacturing, where demanding surface protection is a priority.

HVOF (High Velocity Oxy-Fuel) Coating: Complete Process Guide

High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) coating is an advanced surface coating technique that uses a mixture of fuel and oxygen to apply coating materials at high speed. This process is fundamental for improving the mechanical properties of the treated surfaces, ensuring greater resistance to wear, corrosion and high temperatures.

Definition of HVOF Coating

HVOF cladding is a thermal cladding method that uses the combustion of a mixture of fuel gas and oxygen. This generates a very high speed flame, capable of partially melting the filler material and projecting it onto the surface to be treated. The result is a highly adherent and dense coating, ideal for industrial applications requiring high strength and durability.

Phases of the HVOF Process

The HVOF process is divided into several key stages, each of which is crucial to obtaining a high-quality coating.

  • Surface Preparation Mechanical or chemical cleaning:
    • Remove contaminants and oxides to ensure optimal adhesion.
    • Masking of unaffected areas: Protect parts of the component that do not need to be coated.
  • Spraying of the filler material
    • Partial melting of the filler material: The material is heated until it becomes semi-melted.
    • High-speed projection onto the surface to be treated: The particles are accelerated and projected onto the surface, creating a compact and uniform coating.
  • Quality Control and Finishing
    • Visual inspection and measurements: Verification of the quality of the coating using visual checks and measuring instruments. Further destructive tests will be performed on representative samples in our metallographic laboratories.
    • Any post-spraying processes: Grinding and polishing to obtain the desired finish.

Materials Used in the HVOF Process

HVOF coating is versatile and can be used with several materials, including:

  • Metals
  • Metallic alloys
  • Carbides

These materials are selected based on specific application needs, guaranteeing maximum performance in terms of resistance and durability.

Advantages of HVOF coating process

High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) offers several advantages over other thermal spray techniques, making it a preferred choice for many applications.

  1. Exceptional Coating Density: HVOF coatings are known for their high density, reducing porosity and increasing adhesion, resulting in improved wear and corrosion resistance.
  2. Precise Microstructure: HVOF allows for fine control over the microstructure of coatings, leading to enhanced mechanical properties and surface finish.
  3. Reduced Oxidation: The supersonic speed of HVOF particles minimizes oxidation of the coating material, ensuring excellent hot oxidation resistance.
  4. Minimal Heat Transfer: HVOF operates at lower temperatures, preventing distortion or degradation of substrate materials, unlike other processes like welding overlay.
  5. Versatile Material Compatibility: It can spray a wide range of materials, including metals and carbides, expanding its applicability in diverse industries.
  6. Enhanced Adhesion: HVOF coatings exhibit superior bond strength with the substrate, ensuring long-lasting protection.

In summary, HVOF stands out for its exceptional coating quality, versatility, and efficiency, making it the preferred choice for industries seeking superior wear and oxidation-resistant coatings.

Comparison with Other Thermal Coating Methods

Compared to other thermal coating methods, HVOF coating has several advantages:

  • Compared to Plasma Spray:
    • Higher density of HVOF coating
    • Better adhesion to the substrate
    • Less oxidation during the process
  • Compared to Flame Spray:
    • Higher particle velocity in the HVOF process
    • More uniform and less porous coatings

HVOF coating represents an advanced and highly efficient solution for improving the performance of industrial components. Thanks to its ability to create dense and resistant coatings, it is a preferred choice for many industrial sectors that require high durability and reliability.




  • Wear resistant
  • Hot corrosion resistant
  • Hot oxidation resistant
  • Fretting resistant

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HVOF: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

HVOF stands for High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel. It's a thermal spray process that uses a high-speed stream of oxygen and fuel (usually Kerosene JET A1) to propel powdered coating materials onto a substrate. The particles impact the surface at supersonic speeds, creating a dense and highly adherent coating.

HVOF coatings are widely used for applications requiring wear resistance, hot oxidation resistance, and hot corrosion protection. Common applications include aircraft and IGT engine components, oil and gas industry equipment, automotive parts and various industrial machinery subjected to harsh environments.

HVOF coatings offer advantages such as higher coating density, reduced oxidation, precise microstructure control, and minimal heat transfer to the substrate. These qualities make HVOF a superior choice for many applications over other thermal spray techniques or over Overlay welding..

HVOF can spray a wide range of materials, including carbides, metals, and composites. This versatility allows for tailored coatings to meet specific application requirements, such as tungsten carbide coatings for wear resistance or MCrAlY coatings for hot oxidation protection.